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Seeds of destruction: burning pine nut trees for "power"

     Commercial Feasibility Analysis for Fuels fromPinyon-Juniper Biomass
This is the first document I found in 1998.  It is no longer on theweb, but sections are downloaded on my old computer.  It is an assessmentof the power potential for the pinyon in Eastern Nevada. Prepared by G. Morris.

     Quincy Library Group (QLG), California Energy Commission(CEC), California Institute of Food and Agricultural Research (CIFAR), PlumasCorporation, TSS Consultants, NREL and others.

This study involves mainly forest thinnings (70% White fir, 20% Ponderosapine, and 10% Douglas fir). The design is for six sites (five with alreadyexisting biomass power plants) with 230-300,000 BDT/year at each site anda delivered price of $30-40/BDT. A preliminary evaluation of the processeconomics for each of three technologies (concentrated sulfuric acid, dilutesulphuric acid, dilute nitric acid) was undertaken. Other activities includea site characterization study, ethanol market assessment, environmental impactassessment, and socio-economic impact assessment. There are currently twolocations (Oroville and Chester) undergoing detailed industrial assessment.


    The   Department of Energy and  ForestProducts Industry enter into a  compact  Entitled Agenda, 2020the agenda includes forest feedstock biomass power. The Department of Energy’s(DOE) national biomass power program outlined an ambitious plan to provideas much as 50,000 MW of biomass power by the year 2010 (DOE, 1993). Theprogram activities include improving performance of today’s biomass powerplants, evaluating and utilizing biomass fuels
for cofiring, develop next-generation technologies including integrated gasification/advanceturbine systems, and assuring availability of biomass fuel supplies fromdedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS).


Tahoe Green Power (Resource Concepts Inc.)

    In 1997, the Energy Office proposed using forest organicmaterials (biomass), produced through mechanical thinning, as fuel for thegeneration of electricity. Because of the scarcity of federal and state fundsto pay for the necessary disposal of forest thinning residues, the greenpower concept has significant interest in the Lake Tahoe basin. NSEO hascontinued efforts during 2000 to commercialize the Tahoe forest-based greenpower program. A program marketing brochure, a web site for the Tahoe GreenPower Program (TGPP), and an interest assessment letter to be sent to targetedCalifornia based corporations were developed. The TGPP team met with Tahoebasin and regional office U.S. Forest Service representatives to continueto build support for the program.      

    Dave McNeil made a presentation to Lincoln County
Power District (LCPD) staff at a meeting in Pioche in August regarding bioenergy
utilization of biomass produced from thinning of Pinyon Pine and Juniperforestlands under BLM management. This presentation was requested by theLincoln County Board of Commissioners. Others in attendance included representativesof a North Dakota biopower technology development firm, the Nevada LieutenantGovernor’s office, and staff of the Nevada Commission on Economic Development..The residues would be produced through mechanical thinning designed to reducefire fuel loading and improve ecosystem health. Feedback from the presentationswas extremely positive with commitments expressed to pursue the idea further.

Potential Bioenergy Resources
    Other potential feedstocks are Pinyon Pine-Juniper (“P-J”)woodlands in the eastern and central part of the state (BLM lands in WhitePine and Lincoln counties), harvested overstocked and diseased trees locatedin and around the Lake Tahoe basin, and damaged wood shipping pallets discardedby the Reno and Las Vegas warehousing
Forest residues include underutilized logging residues, imperfect commercialtrees, dead wood, and other non-commercial trees that need to be thinnedfrom crowded, unhealthy, fire-prone forests.


Nevada Energy Office proposed using forest organic materials (biomass), producedthrough mechanical thinning, as fuel for the generation of electricity. Becauseof the scarcity of federal and state funds to pay for the necessary disposalof forest thinning residues, the green power concept has significant interestin the Lake Tahoe basin.1 Energy For Nevada - Report to Legislature 2000

June 6 1998

Nevada State Public Lands Minutes
Pinion juniper: A plan to harvest pinion (also pinon, piñon, or pinyon)juniper for beneficial use has been received from Resource Concepts, Inc.,which has studied the feasibility of using the resource for fueling a powerplant and making lumber products. Harvest and regrowth sustainability isstructured into the plan that will encourage biodiversity. (NOTE- ResourceConcepts provided comment on Mt. Wilson and Ely plans)

NREL G. Morris (note: Morris wrote NREL document on pinyon 1993)
 Green Power Institute, Berkeley, California The Value of the Benefitsof U.S. Biomass Power

Because of past forestry practices and aggressive fire-fighting efforts duringthe past 80–100 years, vast areas of American forests are overstocked withbiomass material, which represents an increased risk of destructive wildfiresand a generally degraded functioning of the forest ecosystems. An additional1.6 million tons/yr of residues will be allowed to accumulate in overstockedor otherwise unhealthy forests and watersheds. These residues will exacerbatethe risks of destructive wildfires and ecosystem degradation.
1998 and 1999

October 29, 1999
Mr. Tucker(BLM) stated that Lincoln County has been working with ResourceConcepts Inc. Mr. John McLane was contacted and he indicated a proposal onbio-mass management. Mr. Tucker will inform the RAC upon acceptance of thisproposal and provide further discussion. Gene Kolkman, Ely Field Office Mr.Kolkman additionally discussed the Pinyon and Juniper issue. Chainings, prescribedburns and bio-mass projects.    

REGIONAL BIOMASS Energy Program Project grant (2000)

These residues will be produced through a massive ecosystem restorationand fuel loading reduction project developed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), called the Eastern Nevada Restoration Project. This project would impactapproximately six million acres of lands containing P-J-approximately one-thirdof the entire Great Basin! Biopower utilization of the P-J resource wouldinvolve short-distance transport of the biomass feedstock to one or moresmall (0.5-5.0 mW), portable biopower plants. Nevada's investor-owned utilityor other sellers could purchase the power in order to meet the state's domesticrenewable energy portfolio standard, which becomes effective January 1, 2001.

2000 Report to Nevada Legislators on Energy
Dave McNeil made a presentation to Lincoln County Power District (LCPD) staffat a meeting in Pioche in August regarding bioenergy utilization of biomassproduced from thinning of Pinyon Pine and Juniper forestlands under BLM management.This presentation was requested by the Lincoln County Board of Commissioners.Others in attendance included representatives of a North Dakota biopowertechnology development firm, the Nevada Lieutenant Governor’s office, andstaff of the Nevada Commission on Economic Development. The meeting revealedthat the LCPD is not interested in buying the biopower at this time due tocurrentsupply contracts vs. demand. However, LCPD is supportive of wheeling thepower to neighboring utilities/local markets for green power, such as throughpending Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requirements.
NSEO staff also made presentations on biomass-based green power to federalland management staff and rural local government and economic developmentinterests in rural Nevada (Ely) and in Reno regarding the wisdom of developinga program using Pinyon Pine and Juniper residues. The residues would be producedthrough mechanical thinning designed to reduce fire fuel loading and improveecosystem health. Feedback from the presentations was extremely positivewith commitments expressed to pursue the idea further.

FY 2001

Nation Fire Plan Grant - Economic Development Fund- Nevada
$200,000 given to Nevada Development Commission -
National Fire Plan Grant -Economic action pilot projects Nevada 2001 budget
- $260,000 in grants to state, federal,county, local, and tribal governments(and not-for-profit organizations) to assist communities in expansion anddevelopment of markets for wood products resulting from hazardous fuels removaland underutilized small-diameter material. Demonstration projects showingend use such as timber bridges, round timber construction, and biomass-to-energyprojects will be emphasized. (, waiting Documents. Funds went to Nevada Econommic Development Authority.

Potential Bioenergy Resources
While Nevada is not exactly blessed with naturally occurring, highly concentrated
biomass resources, what makes bioenergy conversion project opportunitiesworth
pursuing in Nevada, is their ability to serve as cost-effective and environmentally-friendlyindustry alternatives to historical waste management solutions. Other potentialfeedstocks are Pinyon Pine-Juniper ("P-J") woodlands in the eastern and centralpart of the state (BLM lands in White Pine and Lincoln counties), harvestedoverstocked and diseased trees located in and around the Lake Tahoe basin,and damaged wood shipping pallets discarded by the Reno and Las Vegas warehousingindustries.

April 7, 2000
· Piñion Juniper Harvest: NTS Development Corporation intendsto harvest Piñion Juniper for manufacture into wood chips and othertimber-based consumer goods. He expressed appreciation regarding the actionsof Gene Kolkman in facilitating meetings with United States Senator HarryReid’s staff to reach this goal;  
Annual Report 2000 and Tax Return- Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation

In the 2000 anual report, page 8, .pdf format
Chained and seeded dense pinyon juniper stands on public lands in Lincolnand White Pine counties and treated public lands in Nye County with prescribedfire to improve wildlife habitat and livestock forage

MARCH 27, 2001
Mike L. Baughman, Representative, NTS Development Corporation (NTS), Cityof Caliente, Eureka County and Lincoln County, testified the areas he representedsupported A.B. 418. Lincoln County, NTS and the City of Caliente had beenworking cooperatively for the past couple of years to develop alternativeenergy projects in that area.
The NTS Development Corporation was organized to create employment and incomeon and around the Nevada Test Site to make up for the many thousands of jobsthat were lost when weapons’ testing was stopped in the area. They currentlyhad some very aggressive programs, including a 260-megawatt wind energy projecton the Nevada Test Site. He stated the committee could recall there was anannouncement several months ago with Senator Reid and others covering theagreements to provide the land area for the project. In addition, NTS wasworking with Lincoln County to develop an industrial park in Caliente, Nevada,and working with the BLM to develop a biomass energy project that would belocated in the county.
The biomass would be derived from pinion juniper woodlands. The BLM was inthe process of preparing a very long-term landscape management plan thatwould allow the BLM to selectively harvest and thin the pinion juniper woodlandsin the eastern part of the state to provide for better habitat for wildlife,watershed and help abate the serious fire hazard that existed. Mr. Baughmanstated his organizations looked forward to working with the BLM to actuallytake the resulting biomass from that area and put it into productive industrialuses including the production of energy. He stated they were looking at smallmodular plants up to five megawatts and one would be located in Lincoln County.Eureka County had operating geothermal plants in the Beowawe area. They werehoping the facilities could continue to operate and expand in the futureand were interested in the bill to expand renewable resources in Nevada.From a local government perspective, he assured the committee the countieswere very interested in the location of the renewable energy resources projectsin their areas. The projects would help to diversify the local economiesand perhaps provide a local supply of energy that would help to then attractindustry to the areas.

April 5, 2001
Mike L. Baughman, Ph.D., Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC),
. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) had proposed to thin Pinyon-Juniperwoodlands in White Pine and Lincoln Counties through selective harvest. Thethousands of tons of biomass produced would provide energy comparable tocoal (Exhibit K). The bill needed a sunset clause because five years wassufficient to attract new businesses. They were concerned about the Commissionon Economic Development approving or denying tax exemptions that did notmeet the initial criteria but were in the best interest of the state. Theyfelt "undue uncertainty" should not be present in a program that was clearlydesigned to benefit Nevada.

May 8, 2001
ASSEMBLY Committee on Taxation
Mr. Bierman referred to his document, Exhibit H. His map indicated some ofthe projects under consideration in rural Nevada involving the Bureau ofLand Management’s (BLM) clearing of pinon-juniper. Mr. Bierman communicatedthat much of Nevada’s rural energy potential was located in rural Nevada.S.B. 227 would greatly assist the efforts of Nevada’s rural counties "todiversify and expand their economies."
Mr. Bierman proposed that S.B. 227 would help stabilize energy prices. Heexplained that rising electrical rates threatened many agricultural producersin rural Nevada, especially those who pumped groundwater for irrigation.Alfalfa hay producers in Lincoln, Eureka, and Lander Counties could be affectedsignificantly. He predicted "locally available competitive energy sourcescould both lend stability to energy costs and provide employment and incometo rural residents."
Mr. Bierman added that extensive geothermal resources existed in Eureka andLander Counties, particularly in the Beowawe area. Lincoln County and thecity of Caliente were cooperating with the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation,to develop industrial parks in Caliente and Alamo. In Lincoln and White PineCounties, the BLM was developing plans to thin an estimated four millionacres of pinon-juniper woodlands, where "thousands of tons of biomass" wouldresult in the landscape treatments being proposed by the BLM. Each ton ofpinon-juniper biomass contained between 12,000 and 15,000 Btu’s (Britishthermal units) of energy, which was comparable to coal.

June 21 2001 RAC Meeting
Selby asked how long it would take to treat the 20,000 acres. Kolkman replied3 to 4  years, as they hope to treat about 8 to 10 acres per day. Thequestion was raised about the wood by-product (biomass). Kolkman answeredthat some businesses such as the City of Ely and the Ely Shoshone are interested.The wood would be given to these businesses. Some mines have been experimentingwith biomass and sludge to produce top soil.  Two power plants thatare interested in building in Lincoln and White Pine counties just issuedaNotice of Intent on June 13. The question was raised about the wood by-product(biomass). Kolkman answered that some businesses such as the City of Elyand the Ely Shoshone are interested. The wood would be given to these businesses.
July 31, 2001 - Hartzell Testimony to Congress


Eastern Nevada Landscape Restoration Coalition project, Ely, NV, producingbiomass material. The BLM Ely District in eastern Nevada has committedto produce 50,000 to 100,000 tons per year of pinyon-juniper biomass to restoreand improve habitat for sage grouse and Rocky Mountain elk. The projectwill treat over 100,000 acres in FY 2001. The coalition involves 75 Federal,State, and local governments, private foundations and environmental groups,and local community and industry leaders. The coalition is exploring marketsfor the biomass material, including fuel for wood-stove pellets, bioenergyor co-generation, fiber or flakeboard and a variety of other nontraditionalforest products

July 2001 Dunn Memo Re: Mt. Wilson
... PJ will be thinned to increase herbaceous and grass
components, and initially biomass will be chipped and left on site ...
Biomass may be used to fuel a co-generation plant, or used for other
products, in the future, in support of government initatives".
August 2001 ELY/MT. Wilson - Bidder Key Dates - Downloaded BLM Web Site
August 3, 2001 Contract specifications available to bidders
August 8, 2001 Bidders tour
August 16, 2001 Bids due by close of business (4:30 p.m. PDST)
August 18, 2001 ** Public Comment Period Ends (
August 18, 2001 Contract award
August 23, 2001 Work begins

FY 2002 Budget Justification US Department of the Interior and USDA ForestService NFP_final_32601 (This is the name of the .pdf where this inforamationcomes from
Economic Action Programs - A FS program providing funds to work with localcommunities to identify, develop and expand economic opportunities relatedto historically underutilized species, and wood removed through hazardousfuel reduction treatments. Information, demonstrations, application developmentand training will be made available to participating communities. Supportis also provided for community-led planning and prevention to reduce firerisk.
Planned and funded fuel reduction projects treating 3.2 million acres (FS- 1.8 million, DOI - 1.4 million) of Federal land and protecting and providinghazard mitigation on 395,000 acres of private lands. The wildland urban interface(WUI) is a high priority with over 818,000 (FS-509,000 and DOI-309,000) acresplanned for treatment. As the year proceeds and costs further refined - especiallyin the WUI - the amount of treatment acres may be revised. pg4
The Departments will increase project emphasis and concentration in the wildlandurban interface (WUI). Within this the focus will be on areas that will achievethe greatest benefit, that is, community protection and ecological restoration.Costs per acre in these areas could be higher than in FY 2001. The FS plansto accomplish a total of 1.8 million acres, 500,000 of which will be in theWUI. The DOI plans to accomplish a total of 1.4 million acres, 300,000 ofwhich will be in the WUI.

2002 URBAN INTERFACE NFP - Funds (NOTE: funds follow  RCI'sbiomass projects)
Grant Applications for Urban Interface Funds are number in accordance withstate priority. In reviewing the top grant application for Urban InterfaceFunds for the fiscal year 2002, one should remember that instruction on theapplication define Urban as: "The development density for an interface conditionis usually more than 3 structures per acre." These are the top 3 priorityprojects for the State of Nevada.

PRIORITY 1 Glenbrook Project 400 Homes $586,395 NFP $1,172,790 Total Funds
Glenbrook is an exclusive Lake Tahoe subdivision. Community information onthe internet reports: Of the 730 acres comprising Glenbrook, approximately150 have been developed. Nearly 600 acres remain undisturbed, offering homeownersa number of unique recreational opportunities. This quiet area includes morethan 1/2 mile of private sandy beach, acres of meadowland, tennis courts,a private pier, and a nine-hole golf course. However, this source reports275 homes with prices ranging from $725,000 to $7,000,000. UI Grant fundsare for planning and the purchase of a Bobcat and barrel chipper . My math730 acres \ 400 homes = 1 home per 1.825 acres. This is part of the Tahoe"Green Energy Program", a well documented biomass energy model.
Priority 2 Mt. Wilson 50 Homes 22,000 Acres* $40,000 NFP $80,000 Total Funds
Mount Wilson is a exceptionally remote area in Central Nevada, the treatmentarea figure is derived from the Environmental Assessment. Approx. 35 squaremiles, to protect 1.2 square mile private land enclave.BLM's project designactually leaves higher densities of trees touching private lands than inmany other portions of the project areas. So, the "interface" has becomea beauty strip. The NFP grant funds are to be used for a risk assessment.This is an Eastern Landscape Restoration Project.
Priority 3 Ely Application Shows 2,500 homes 9,400 acres $70,000 NFP $140,000Total Funds
The Ely project treats outlying surrounding areas with exceptionally lowpopulation densities. It extends south from Ely approx. 13 miles - in a 1to 1.5 mile wide swath. Habitation is present only in the very northern portionof project area. Again, the trees are left touching private land, leavinga beautification strip. The grant funds are used for risk assessement. Thisis an Eastern Landscape Restoration Project.

Nation Fire Plan Grant - Economic Development Fund- Nevada FY 2001 $200,000and FYI 2002 ($190,000) Ended up in the hands of Carl Delane from the NevadaState Commission on Economic Development. It is out in RFP as a feasibilitystudy. It project is specefically targeted at Eastern Nevada BLM Restorationareas. However, the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition sent a letter sayingthey would not seek the funds, however other community organizations wereinterested. However, Bob Abbey informed them at a public lands managementmeeting last month that a full EIS had to be done,as there was concern thatthe soil ph would change if they just left the chips on the ground, and thata vegitative inventory needed to be done. Another segement of the money undera different classification $260,000. went to the biomass pilot project inLake Tahoe. That is years in the making, and a very well developed

Thursday, November 29, 2001
Representatives of the biomass industry said their work presents a solutionto the accumulation of thickets of brush and small trees in national forests,which fuel catastrophic wildfires. Biomass companies take the small treesand brush from forest thinning, which might not have another commercial use,and burn them to produce electricity.
"The question is not simply what public lands can do for renewable energy,but what biomass can do for public lands," said William Carlson, vice presidentof the Renewable Energy Division of Wheelabrator Environmental Systems.
Carlson said that with biomass energy, whole forests could be thinned withno cost to the federal government.
But Carlson said the industry needs a tax credit to jump-start more operations.And he said that for stability, the industry needs long-term contracts onpublic lands that the federal government has not been willing to give.
Norton said that her department will compile suggestions from the companiesat the conference and present formal proposals early next year.

RCI (Resouce Concepts Inc) Biomass Project List - cached google, nodate

1. RCI was retained by the ARS and the Community of Burns, OR to developand present a program to the community on wood biomass energy/wood productdevelopment opportunities. There is much community interest in new opportunitiesin economic development due to recent closure of a major industry at Burns.The community feel that an opportunity exists in harvest and productive useof the excess Western juniper biomass in the region.
Lincoln County
Lincoln County Economic Development / Nevada Association of Counties
RCI was involved in securing funds from the Nevada Legislature to assistin carrying out a statewide scoping study regarding treatments and uses ofthe Pinion-Juniper Woodlands in Southeastern Nevada. In this study, RCI focusedon methods presently being employed by BLM to address the management issuesof these woodlands, and what the future potential opportunities include toachieve desired plant community. Energy and wood product development wereidentified as high potential outcomes, as the woodlands are managed on asustainable / renewable basis.
The Glenbrook Community Project
RCI is retained to assist this Lake Tahoe nonprofit group in planning forand managing a project directed toward removing dead timber surrounding thecommunity and presently presenting a severe fire threat to the private homesand also the clarity of Lake Tahoe. Excess wood biomass will be removed andtransported from the basin to be used for productive purposes such as energy.
The Sugarpine Project
RCI has been retained to assist this nonprofit organization in securing fundsand developing plans to address the most severe fire threat from dead anddying timber in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Funding applications have been successfuland a coordinated effort that includes TRPA, USFS, NDF, and others is underwayto remove the wood biomass from the basin to useful purposes such as energy.The risks associated with this problem included an exclusive housing area,watershed values, and the clarity of Lake Tahoe itself. The Governor of Nevada,US Forest Service Chief, and scientists have visited this project and declaredit a priority.
Western Juniper
RCI developed an overview document on behalf of the North Cal-Neva ResourceConservation & Development Council (NC-NRC&D) to outline an approchfor addressing large scale inventory and treatment of identified problemstands of excess Western juniper woodlands existing within several millionacres. A report recommended development of a Western Juniper management strategyto serve as a prototype for all juniper communities in the region
John McClain, Principal, Resource Concepts, Inc., Carson City, provided theCommittee with an overview of the Lincoln County Pinion–Juniper Harvest Project,as follows:
1. · An extended period of fire suppression and non-harvest resultedin loss of forage, habitat, and watershed, which has created unnatural conditions.
· There are 11 million acres of Pinion-Juniper woodlands in Nevada.
·  · The current environmental conditions created by Pinion-Juniperinclude:
Ø Existence of a fire hazard;
Ø High management cost to the public;
Ø Negative impacts of runoff;
Ø Reduction of understory vegetation;
Ø Reduction of wildlife habitat; and
Ø Vulnerability to invasive species.
Mr. McClain explained the management strategies for Pinion-Juniper include:(1) burning; (2) chaining; (3) commercial thinning (biomass harvest); and(4) high grading (fence posts, firewood gathering, and pine nut harvesting).He provided detailed information regarding management strategies, as follows:
· Burning Pinion-Juniper can cause the following:
Ø Air quality concerns;
Ø Unsuitable conditions for reseeding;
Ø Diminished useable biomass;
Ø Greater potential for invasive species;
Ø Release of understory species;
Ø Short term viewscape impact; and
Ø Temporary period of nonuse.
· Chaining Pinion-Juniper causes the following:
Ø Cost to the public;
Ø Harsh mechanical treatment;
Ø Loss of useable biomass;
Ø Potential for invasive species;
Ø Provides conditions for reseeding;
Ø Release of understory species;
Ø Short term viewscape impact; and
Ø Temporary period of nonuse.
· Commercial thinning (biomass harvest) of Pinion-Juniper providesthe following:
Ø Creates conditions for healthy burns;
Ø Enhances watershed conditions;
Ø Improves understory vegetation;
Ø Improves wildlife habitat;
Ø Provides minimal visual impact
Ø Reduces potential catastrophic fires; and
Ø Sustains healthy woodlands.
Continuing his discussion, Mr. McClain focused his comments on biomass harvest,which is a new approach to resource management, is sustainable, and is asource of renewable energy and wood products. Biomass uses include:
· Wood blended products;
· Wood distillation;
· Wood energy; and
· Wood products.
Mr. McClain explained that wood hybrid power is coming back on-line. Somegeneration facilities utilize wood hybrid power exclusively and others operatecogeneration facilities. The energy produced by Pinion-Juniper equated 9,000British thermal units (BTUs) per pound, compared to the following:
· 8,000 BTUs per pound — poplar wood chips; and
· 10,498 BTUs per pound — coal.
Additionally, there are potential institutional changes through the reemphasison use of biomass to:
· Reduce fossil fuel consumption and foreign energy dependence;
· Reduce greenhouse effect; and
· Restore natural vegetation conditions.
The U.S. Department of Energy is interested in the use of biomass harvestingto:
· Help achieve national energy strategic goals
· Increase economic viability of rural areas;
· Provide an alternative energy source; and
· Reduce agriculture and urban waste.
Further, assistance opportunities for biomass production are available through:
· The U.S. Department of Agriculture;
· The U.S. Department of Commerce;
· The U.S. Department of Energy;
· The U.S. Department of the Interior;
· The Nevada Commission on Economic Development; and
· The Nevada State Energy Office, Department of Business and Industry.
In conclusion, Mr. McClain explained that Lincoln County has encouraged U.S.Senator Harry Reid (D-NV) to secure funding to conduct an inventory to determinethe feasibility of commercial thinning in the county. Mr. McClain requestedthe Committee support this effort.
In response to Assemblyman Collins, Mr. McClain provided the following comparisonswith regard to pollutants emitted by burning Pinion-Juniper:
· Particulate release:
Ø Wildfire — 17 pounds per ton;
Ø Prescribed burn — 40 pounds per ton; and
Ø Electric generation facility — 0.13 per ton.
· Carbon monoxide release:
Ø Wildfire — 140 pounds per ton;
Ø Prescribed burn — 252 pounds per ton; and
Ø Electric generation facility — 3.2 per ton.

Dated November 12, 2002 - Carson City Manager’s Report
 Biomass — Attended a regional meeting organized by the State EnergyOffice to present our efforts to date.
1. Held a telephone conversation with Elwood Miller of the Fire Safe Council,John McClain of Resource Concepts Inc. (RCI) and John Singlaub of the Bureauof Land Management (BLM) to discuss the status of the Council's completionof a study to determine the availability of biomass fuels for the next 10years within a 50-mile radius of Carson City, (you may recall we had proposeddoing a similar study which was to be funded by the Forest Service; howeverour proposal was rejected due to the lack of funding); we also outlined aprocess whereby the council would facilitate meetings with us and neighboringjurisdictions who have thinning projects underway to arrange for our landfillto begin to receive product from these projects; and, Mr. Singlaub agreedto purse federal funding to underwrite the cost of processing biomass materialat these various projects to reduce the cost of transportation.
Met with John Martinson, former University of Nevada Reno (UNR) professorand an activist promoting waste energy and biomass recycling projects.
Held a meeting with Gary Bowen on various regional efforts including ourbiomass interests.
1. Energy Team —Met with the team to receive an update on the Viron projectwhich is complete except for the co-gen facility; discussed the second Requestfor Proposal (RFP) which is due October 24th; discussed the status of implementingother concepts including:
Dated November 25, 2002
City Manager’s Report
 Energy Team — Met with the team where we received an update on theViron Phase I project which is complete with the cogen maintenance contractbefore the Board for approval; Phase II project evaluation almost complete;discussed the status of our biomass work; consultant Carollo report on conservationoptions due mid-December; and Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo) is almostdone reconciling all City accounts.
1. Biomass — Met with John McClain of Resource Concepts Inc. (RCI) and DarenWinkelman to discuss the Request for proposal (RFP) issued by the Fire SafeCouncil to conduct a regional inventory of product. We agreed that Darenwould instruct landfill consultant HDR to work with the Bureau of Land Management(BLM) to layout an area for the receipt, segregation and processing of material.We also committed to a 20% match ($10,000) required by the RFP. The potentialbenefits to Carson City are substantial and include:

1. Conserving landfill space thus creating capacity and extending its life.
2. Assisting local and regional efforts to reduce wildfire fuels.
3. Several potential economic development opportunities including buildingproducts and energy production.
January, 2003
Nevada Southwest Energy Program
1. Early in 2001 it came to the attention
of the Governor?s Officethat Senator Reid wished to work for an energy funding opportunity for energyresearch, development and deployment using the Nevada research institutionsthrough an earmark to the Energy and Water Appropriations Bill. Given thepassage of the RPS, the support expressed by Senator Ensign, Lieutenant GovernorHunt, Governor Guinn and others, the Senator invited the Governor?s Officeto coordinate a response to the earmark. To capitalize on this opportunitythe University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the Desert Research Institute (DRI),the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), the Nevada State Office of Energy(NSOE), and the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC), in cooperationwith the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), initiated the NevadaSouthwest Energy Program (NSWEP). The program was founded to leverage theresearch, development and outreach capabilities of its members, the naturalresource abundance of Nevada, and the favorable institutional environmentcreated by the RPS legislation to create working renewable and energy efficiencylaboratory in Nevada. The program was intended to be unique among DOE fundedprojects in that it would represent an integrated, cross-functional, cross-technologyprogram that will address the energy production/consumption system as a whole.In directly addressing the importance of having the institutional infrastructurenecessary to support the development and deployment of renewable and energyefficiency technologies, this program was intended to provide an opportunityto link the advances in the DOE technology program areas with the implementationof these respective technologies as working models.
The first year of funding for the program was set at $4 million. The NSWEPboard decided that NREL should serve as the administrator of a competitivesolicitation. Principal investigators at the research institutions in Nevadaassembled public and private partnership teams and submitted 34 proposalsin response to the solicitation. 9 proposals were identified as the highestpriority projects and these 9 projects received, or are in the process ofreceiving, a total of $3.2 million in grant funding. The projects fundedincluded concentrating solar power projects at UNLV, integrated solar/efficienctbuilding projects at UNLV, a hydrogen energy project at DRI and UNR, a windmapping project at DRI & UNLV, and a geothermal mapping and explorationproject at UNR. Funding for a second year is currently provided for in theSenate version of the Energy and water appropriation.
Rural Outreach Work Group
The rural outreach work group was formed to facilitate the development ofrenewable energy projects in rural Nevada. The work group was formed afterthe 2002 Nevada Land Use Summit to follow up on interest expressed at thesummit in renewable energy applications. Particular interest was expressedin small wind projects that could defray the expense of irrigation. Therewas also strong interest expressed in identifying biomass projects that couldserve as an alternative source of income for farmers and ranchers. The groupis also interested in identifying solar and geothermal applications, butthe focus coming out of the summit was on wind and biomass opportunities.The work group meets monthly and the focus is four-fold:
Identify all potential wind, geothermal, biomass and solar projects thatare currently being contemplated, planned or developed in rural Nevada;
Identify all potential sources of funding for rural renewable energy projectsand invite the participation of Nevada Commission on Economic Development,Nevada Association of Counties, UCCSN Cooperative Extension, USDA rural programs,and other city and county officials so that we can leverage the greatestpossible support for projects;
Identify barriers to the development of rural projects and seek to mitigatethem; and
Identify promising projects with the goal of getting at least one wind andone biomass project underway in each of northern Nevada and southern Nevada.
To date, individuals have expressed an interest in initiating more than 60rural renewable energy projects. Out of this 60, ten projects have been identifiedas being those with the greatest support and greatest probability of success.The focus of NSOE at the present is in funding a ?cooperative extension?type of service to the potential project developers to help in making a businesscase for the projects.

RCI -Biomass Support Activities
1. NSOE assisted inquiry from Sierra Pacific Power Company regarding useof biodiesel in the company?s generators at Lake Tahoe as a means or reducingair emissions and in obtaining credit for renewable energy sales under Nevada?sRPS.
NSOE gave presentations on Nevada?s bioenergy resources and utilization projectopportunities to the Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation Task Forcein December of 2001, attendees of the ?AgExpo 2002? conference in Fallonin January of 2002, and as a morning plenary panelist at the June, 2002,ASES conference. NSOE staff also gave focused presentations to attendeesof the Rural Renewable Energy Outreach Group, staff of the Nevada Commissionon Economic Development, Nevada Division of Forestry, and Nevada Fire SafeCouncil regarding office involvement with use of locally produced forestthinning residues as a feedstock for energy conversion technologies. Pursuitof this concept would provide support of efforts to reduce fire danger inthe urban/wildland interface areas of the state through the cost-effectivedisposal of thinning biomass.
Staff have most recently supported the efforts of the Alternative EnergyWorking Group created by the Carson City Economic Vitality Coalition. Theworking group is assessing the value-added opportunities associated withusing local forest thinning residues as a building space conditioning orcogeneration fuel for use by the city and/or other energy end users (thestate, school district, private industry, etc.).
NSOE has held numerous meetings with Nevada agricultural industry and economicdevelopment advocates regarding interest in, and feasibility of, establishinga Nevada ethanol production industry in Winnemucca or other locations inNevada. To this end, NSOE was successful in obtaining U.S. DOE financialsupport of a major ethanol conference that was held at the Atlantis Hotel/Casinoin Reno on January 9, 2003.

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